The devastating effects of violence experienced by individuals is decimating homes, neighborhoods, and communities across the US. Since 2019, US homicide rates have increased by 35%, to8.1 per 100000population in 2021,1 rising in parallel with an overall increase in violent crimes. The complex public health problem of violence can present in many forms, including assault, homicide, suicide, intimate partner violence, child abuse, elder abuse, and others. [JAMA Network}
These preventable violent injuries and deaths impose a steep human toll and have important economic consequences, including costs for acute care, the
need for long-term home health care, loss of productivity, and the inability to reintegrate back into society.
According to estimates from the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, nearly 2 million people were treated in US hospital emergency departments in 2020 for assault-related injuries.2