Executive Summary -Main Points- Maternal and Neonatal Birth Outcomes
- Maternal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) may be associated with a lower likelihood of inadequate gestational weight gain (Strength of evidence [SOE]: Low), lower alcohol use in pregnancy (SOE: Low), no difference in smoking during or after pregnancy (SOE: Low), no difference in perinatal death overall (SOE: Low), and lower risk of stillbirth in Black women (SOE: Low).
- Maternal WIC participation during pregnancy is likely to be associated with lower risk of preterm birth and lower risk of low birth weight infants (SOE: Moderate).
- The evidence was insufficient to determine whether maternal WIC participation was associated with decreased neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stays.
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